Biological Sciences

Bachelor of Science: 182.5 quarter credits

About the Program

The curricular choices are designed to provide a sound basis for careers in the private sector, government and research laboratories, and for advanced study in graduate and professional programs in medicine, other health related areas, or in teaching.

The biological sciences encompass many areas of study. Biologists study the structure and functions of living organisms from the individual cell to the full organism, and collectively to the community level. Discoveries in the biological sciences influence many aspects of our daily lives and have become the foundation of most new developments of the new century. In the past two decades, advances in molecular biology and genetics have been rapid, opening many new, exciting career opportunities in the fields of biotechnology and genetic engineering. Biologists can pursue a variety of options including careers in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or other health-related areas; in research or commercial laboratories; in various private and government agencies; and in teaching. In fact, more than 100 different occupations have been listed for biologists.

The biological science major resides in the Department of Biology. Students earn a bachelor's degree in the biological sciences and are prepared for technical careers in research or commercial laboratories, or for professional schools or graduate study. Graduates in the biological sciences are in demand and enjoy a high placement rate with competitive salaries. Graduates with a degree in the biological sciences work for pharmaceutical companies, medical research laboratories, or biotechnology companies, or in government laboratories.

The course requirements identifies required support courses in chemistry, physics, mathematics, humanities, and science and human affairs. With proper selection of electives, students can meet teacher certification requirements or complete a minor in another field. Students are encouraged to consult frequently with their academic advisor for curriculum planning.


In addition to the core requirements, students select one of five concentrations in a field of interest:

  • Cell/Molecular Biology/Genetics/Biochemistry
  • Organismal Biology/Physiology
  • Ecology/Evolution/Genomics
  • Pathobiology
  • General Biology

Program Options

Co-op/internship employment is an option for biological science students. The major offers three distinct plans:

Five-year option with co-op/internship experience

This option allows for the greatest amount of employment experience, with three distinct six-month periods of employment included with studies. After the start of the sophomore year, students study or work through all terms, including summer.

Four-year option with one co-op/internship experience

The degree includes just one six-month period of full-time employment. After the start of sophomore year, students study or work through all terms, including summer.

Four-year option without co-op experience

The degree can be completed in four years without co-op/internship employment. Students are not required to pursue studies during any of the summer terms.

Degree Requirements 

The Biological Sciences curriculum is designed to provide students with both depth and flexibility within the field of biology. In addition to the core requirements, students select one of five concentrations in a field of interest.

  • Cell/Molecular Biology/Genetics/Biochemistry
  • Organismal Biology/Physiology
  • Ecology/Evolution/Genomics
  • Pathobiology
  • General Biology

Concentration requirements and elective options are outlined below. Within each concentration, students are able to further specialize in a focus area by taking recommended electives.

The Biological Sciences curriculum is designed to provide students with both depth and flexibility within the field of biology. In addition to the core requirements, students select one of five concentrations in a field of interest.

  • Cell/Molecular Biology/Genetics/Biochemistry
  • Organismal Biology/Physiology
  • Ecology/Evolution/Genomics
  • Pathobiology
  • General Biology

Concentration requirements and elective options are outlined below. Within each concentration, students are able to further specialize in a focus area by taking recommended electives.

Requirements
Humanities and Social Sciences
ENGL 101Composition and Rhetoric I: Inquiry and Exploratory Research3.0
ENGL 102Composition and Rhetoric II: The Craft of Persuasion3.0
ENGL 103Composition and Rhetoric III: Thematic Analysis Across Genres3.0
COM 230Techniques of Speaking3.0
COM 310 [WI] Technical Communication3.0
or COM 320 Science Writing
PHIL 251Ethics3.0
UNIV S101The Drexel Experience1.0
CIVC 101Introduction to Civic Engagement1.0
UNIV S201Looking Forward: Academics and Careers1.0
Humanities and Social Science Electives9.0
Science, Technology, Health and Human Affairs Elective3.0
Mathematics and Statistics
Select one of the following sequences:12.0
Intro to Analysis
Introduction to Analysis I
Introduction to Analysis II
Mathematics for the Life Sciences
Calculus
Calculus I
Calculus II
Calculus III
MATH 410Scientific Data Analysis I3.0
MATH 411Scientific Data Analysis II3.0
Physical Sciences
CHEM 101General Chemistry I3.5
CHEM 102General Chemistry II4.5
CHEM 103General Chemistry III5.0
CHEM 241Organic Chemistry I4.0
CHEM 242Organic Chemistry II4.0
BIO 311Biochemistry4.0
or CHEM 243 Organic Chemistry III
PHYS 152Introductory Physics I4.0
PHYS 153Introductory Physics II4.0
PHYS 154Introductory Physics III4.0
Core Biology Courses
BIO 122Cells and Genetics4.5
BIO 124Evolution & Organismal Diversity4.5
BIO 126Physiology and Ecology4.5
BIO 207Applications in Biology I1.0
BIO 208Applications in Biology II1.0
BIO 209Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology I4.0
BIO 211Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology II4.0
BIO 219 [WI] Techniques in Molecular Biology3.0
BIO 224Form, Function & Evolution of Vertebrates4.0
BIO 225Vertebrate Biology and Evolution Laboratory2.0
ENVS 212Evolution4.0
BIO 471Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
BIO 472Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
BIO 473 [WI] Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
Concentration Courses28.0-30.0
Free electives24.0
Total Credits183.5

 

Students select one of five concentration and fulfill the requirements, as outlined below.

1. The Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) Concentration

This concentration provides exposure to several vital disciplines within Biology, and will prepare students for a diversity of careers in research, medicine, and industry. Students interested in tailoring their studies more specifically may follow the suggested "focus areas" when selecting their two CMGB Concentration electives.

Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) Concentration Requirements
BIO 244Genetics I3.0
or BIO 444 Human Genetics
BIO 314Pharmacology3.0
or BIO 404 Structure and Function of Biomolecules
BIO 318Biology of Cancer3.0
or BIO 430 Cell Biology of Disease
BIO 410Advanced Molecular Biology3.0
Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) Concentration Electives (See Lists Below)
Two Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) Electives (see list below)6.0
Organismal/Physiology Elective (see list below)3.0
Ecology/Evolution/Genomics Elective (see list below)3.0
Concentration Laboratory Courses
Two Laboratory Electives (see list below)4.0
Total Credits28.0

*

 Students interested in pursuing a focus area in Neurobiology, Pharmaceutics, Cell Biology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology or Genetics should contact the academic advisor in the Biology Department for specific focus recommendations.

 

Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) Electives
BIO 231Cell Physiology3.0
BIO 244Genetics I3.0
BIO 311Biochemistry4.0
BIO 314Pharmacology3.0
BIO 318Biology of Cancer3.0
BIO 346Stem Cell Research3.0
BIO 404Structure and Function of Biomolecules4.0
BIO 414Behavioral Genetics3.0
BIO 415Proteins3.0
BIO 416Biochemistry of Major Diseases3.0
BIO 421Biomembranes3.0
BIO 430Cell Biology of Disease3.0
BIO 433Advanced Cell Biology3.0
BIO 444Human Genetics3.0
BIO 445Microbial Genetics3.0
BIO 447Advanced Genetics and Molecular Biology3.0
BIO 451Genetic Reg Development3.0
BIO 461Neurobiology of Autism Disorders3.0
BIO 462Biology of Neuron Function3.0
BIO 463Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration3.0
BIO 465Neurobiology of Disease3.0
BIO 498Independent Study0.5-12.0
Organismal/Physiology Electives
BIO 201Human Physiology I4.0
BIO 221Microbiology3.0
BIO 223Parasitology3.0
BIO 256Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology5.0
BIO 260Plant Biology I4.0
BIO 270Development Biology3.0
BIO 284Biology of Stress3.0
BIO 310Comparative Physiology3.0
BIO 322Mycology4.5
BIO 368Embryology4.0
BIO 370Teratology3.0
BIO 386Gross Anatomy I3.0
BIO 412Biology of Aging3.0
BIO 420Virology3.0
BIO 426Immunology3.0
ENVS 254Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology3.0
ENVS 392Ichthyology and Herpetology3.0
ENVS 393Entomology3.0
Ecology/Evolution/Genomics Electives
BIO 228Evolutionary Biology & Human Health3.0
BIO 331Bioinformatics I3.0
BIO 413Genomics3.0
BIO 436Human Population Genetics4.0
ENVS 230General Ecology3.0
ENVS 247Native Plants and Sustainability3.0
ENVS 323Tropical Field Studies3.0
ENVS 328Conservation Biology3.0
ENVS 343Equatorial Guinea: Field Methods3.0
ENVS 360Evolutionary Developmental Biology3.0
ENVS 364Animal Behavior3.0
ENVS 382Field Botany of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 383Ecology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 391Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Algae3.0
ENVS 470Advanced Topics in Evolution3.0
Laboratory Electives
BIO 202Human Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 215 [WI] Techniques in Cell Biology2.5
BIO 222Microbiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 257Vertebrate Morphology & Physiology Lab2.0
BIO 271Developmental Biology Laboratory2.0
BIO 306Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 313Comparative Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 387Gross Anatomy I Laboratory2.0
BIO 389Gross Anatomy II Lab2.0
BIO 406Computational Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 427Immunology Laboratory2.0
BIO 497Research0.5-12.0
ENVS 255Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology Lab2.0
ENVS 344Equatorial Guinea: Field Research6.0
ENVS 365Animal Behavior Laboratory2.0
ENVS 394Entomology Laboratory2.0

2. The Organismal Biology/Physiology Concentration

This concentration combines courses in organismal biology and physiology with an opportunity to focus on human physiology. The concentration is designed to appeal to students interested in health and medicine, but also accommodates students seeking a wider breadth of knowledge in organismal diversity. Students can focus their electives in human physiology or can choose courses that study non-human organisms.

Organismal Biology/Physiology Concentration Requirements
BIO 201Human Physiology I4.0
or BIO 254 Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology
BIO 203Human Physiology II4.0
or BIO 256 Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology
BIO 270Development Biology3.0
Select one of the following:
BIO 412Biology of Aging3.0
or BIO 284 Biology of Stress
or BIO 466 Endocrinology
Organismal Biology/Physiology Concentration Concentration Electives (See List Below)
Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) Elective3.0
Two Organismal/Physiology Electives6.0
Ecology/Evolution/Genomics Elective3.0
Concentration Laboratory Courses
Two Laboratory Electives4.0
Total Credits30.0

 

*

 Students interesting in pursuing a focus area in Human Physiology or Organismal Biology should contact the academic advisor in the Biology Department for specific focus recommendations.

*Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) electives

BIO 244Genetics I3.0
BIO 311Biochemistry4.0
BIO 314Pharmacology3.0
BIO 318Biology of Cancer3.0
BIO 346Stem Cell Research3.0
BIO 404Structure and Function of Biomolecules4.0
BIO 410Advanced Molecular Biology3.0
BIO 414Behavioral Genetics3.0
BIO 416Biochemistry of Major Diseases3.0
BIO 430Cell Biology of Disease3.0
BIO 444Human Genetics3.0
BIO 449Recombinant DNA Laboratory5.0
BIO 461Neurobiology of Autism Disorders3.0
BIO 462Biology of Neuron Function3.0
BIO 463Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration3.0
BIO 498Independent Study (by permission of the department)0.5-12.0

 

**Organismal/Physiology electives

BIO 201Human Physiology I4.0
BIO 203Human Physiology II4.0
BIO 221Microbiology3.0
BIO 223Parasitology3.0
BIO 254Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology3.0
BIO 256Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology5.0
BIO 262Plant Biology II4.0
BIO 264Ethnobotany3.0
BIO 284Biology of Stress3.0
BIO 310Comparative Physiology3.0
BIO 320Microbial Pathogenesis3.0
BIO 322Mycology4.5
BIO 368Embryology4.0
BIO 370Teratology3.0
BIO 386Gross Anatomy I3.0
BIO 388Gross Anatomy II2.0
BIO 412Biology of Aging3.0
BIO 420Virology3.0
BIO 424Microbial Physiology3.0
BIO 426Immunology3.0
BIO 435Immunobiology of Disease3.0
BIO 466Endocrinology4.0
ENVS 254Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology3.0
ENVS 392Ichthyology and Herpetology3.0
ENVS 393Entomology3.0

 

*** Ecology/Evolution/Genomics electives

BIO 228Evolutionary Biology & Human Health3.0
BIO 331Bioinformatics I3.0
BIO 413Genomics3.0
BIO 436Human Population Genetics4.0
ENVS 230General Ecology3.0
ENVS 247Native Plants and Sustainability3.0
ENVS 323Tropical Field Studies3.0
ENVS 328Conservation Biology3.0
ENVS 343Equatorial Guinea: Field Methods3.0
ENVS 360Evolutionary Developmental Biology3.0
ENVS 364Animal Behavior3.0
ENVS 382Field Botany of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 383Ecology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 388Marine Field Methods4.0
ENVS 391Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Algae3.0
ENVS 438Biodiversity3.0
ENVS 470Advanced Topics in Evolution3.0

 

+Laboratory electives

BIO 202Human Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 215 [WI] Techniques in Cell Biology2.5
BIO 222Microbiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 257Vertebrate Morphology & Physiology Lab2.0
BIO 271Developmental Biology Laboratory2.0
BIO 306Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 313Comparative Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 333Bioinformatics Laboratory2.0
BIO 387Gross Anatomy I Laboratory2.0
BIO 389Gross Anatomy II Lab2.0
BIO 406Computational Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 427Immunology Laboratory2.0
BIO 434 [WI] Advanced Cell Biology Laboratory2.0
BIO 449Recombinant DNA Laboratory5.0
ENVS 255Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology Lab2.0
ENVS 344Equatorial Guinea: Field Research6.0
ENVS 365Animal Behavior Laboratory2.0
ENVS 394Entomology Laboratory2.0

 

3. The Ecology/Evolution/Genomics Concentration

This concentration focuses on ecological and evolutionary aspects of biology for biology majors who also have specific interests in ecology, evolution or genomics. This concentration is designed to maintain a breadth of knowledge in biology, but also allows students to tailor their course work more specifically to reflect their specific area of interest.

Ecology/Evolution/Genomics Concentration requirements

ENVS 326Molecular Ecology3.0
BIO 228Evolutionary Biology & Human Health3.0
or BIO 331 Bioinformatics I
BIO 436Human Population Genetics3.0-4.0
or ENVS 230 General Ecology
Select one of the following:3.0-5.0
Microbiology
Parasitology
Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology
Genomics
Virology
Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology
Evolutionary Developmental Biology
Field Botany of the New Jersey Pine Barrens
Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Algae
Ichthyology and Herpetology
Entomology
Biodiversity
Ecology/Evolution/Genomics concentration electives
Select one Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) elective (see list below)3.0
Select one Organismal/Physiology elective (see list below)3.0
Select two Ecology/Evolution/Genomics electives (see list below)6.0
Concentration Laboratory Courses
Select two Laboratory electives (see list below)4.0
Total Credits28.0-31.0

*

 Students interested in pursuing a focus area in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology or Genomics should contact the academic advisor in the Biology Department for specific focus recommendations.

 

Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) electives

BIO 244Genetics I3.0
BIO 311Biochemistry4.0
BIO 314Pharmacology3.0
BIO 318Biology of Cancer3.0
BIO 346Stem Cell Research3.0
BIO 404Structure and Function of Biomolecules4.0
BIO 410Advanced Molecular Biology3.0
BIO 414Behavioral Genetics3.0
BIO 415Proteins3.0
BIO 416Biochemistry of Major Diseases3.0
BIO 421Biomembranes3.0
BIO 430Cell Biology of Disease3.0
BIO 433Advanced Cell Biology3.0
BIO 444Human Genetics3.0
BIO 449Recombinant DNA Laboratory5.0
BIO 461Neurobiology of Autism Disorders3.0
BIO 462Biology of Neuron Function3.0
BIO 463Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration3.0
BIO 498Independent Study (by permission of the department)0.5-12.0
ENVS 326Molecular Ecology3.0

 

Organismal/Physiology electives

BIO 201Human Physiology I4.0
BIO 221Microbiology3.0
BIO 223Parasitology3.0
BIO 256Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology5.0
BIO 260Plant Biology I4.0
BIO 284Biology of Stress3.0
BIO 310Comparative Physiology3.0
BIO 322Mycology4.5
BIO 368Embryology4.0
BIO 386Gross Anatomy I3.0
BIO 388Gross Anatomy II2.0
BIO 412Biology of Aging3.0
BIO 420Virology3.0
BIO 426Immunology3.0
ENVS 254Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology3.0
ENVS 392Ichthyology and Herpetology3.0
ENVS 393Entomology3.0

 

Ecology/Evolution/Genomics electives

BIO 228Evolutionary Biology & Human Health3.0
BIO 331Bioinformatics I3.0
BIO 332Bioinformatics II3.0
BIO 413Genomics3.0
BIO 436Human Population Genetics4.0
ENVS 230General Ecology3.0
ENVS 247Native Plants and Sustainability3.0
ENVS 284 [WI] Physiological and Population Ecology3.0
ENVS 286Community and Ecosystem Ecology3.0
ENVS 315Plant Animal Interactions3.0
ENVS 322Tropical Ecology3.0
ENVS 328Conservation Biology3.0
ENVS 330Aquatic Ecology3.0
ENVS 336Terrestrial Ecology5.0
ENVS 343Equatorial Guinea: Field Methods3.0
ENVS 360Evolutionary Developmental Biology3.0
ENVS 364Animal Behavior3.0
ENVS 382Field Botany of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 383Ecology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 390Marine Ecology3.0
ENVS 391Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Algae3.0
ENVS 410Physiological Ecology3.0
ENVS 412Biophysical Ecology3.0
ENVS 413Advanced Population Ecology3.0
ENVS 414Advanced Community Ecology3.0
ENVS 438Biodiversity3.0
ENVS 470Advanced Topics in Evolution3.0

 

Laboratory electives

BIO 202Human Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 215 [WI] Techniques in Cell Biology2.5
BIO 222Microbiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 257Vertebrate Morphology & Physiology Lab2.0
BIO 271Developmental Biology Laboratory2.0
BIO 306Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 313Comparative Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 333Bioinformatics Laboratory2.0
BIO 387Gross Anatomy I Laboratory2.0
BIO 389Gross Anatomy II Lab2.0
BIO 406Computational Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 427Immunology Laboratory2.0
BIO 449Recombinant DNA Laboratory5.0
BIO 497Research (by permission of the department)0.5-12.0
ENVS 255Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology Lab2.0
ENVS 285 [WI] Population Ecology Laboratory2.0
ENVS 287Community Ecology Laboratory2.0
ENVS 327Molecular Ecology Laboratory2.0
ENVS 336Terrestrial Ecology5.0
ENVS 344Equatorial Guinea: Field Research6.0
ENVS 365Animal Behavior Laboratory2.0
ENVS 382Field Botany of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 383Ecology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 388Marine Field Methods4.0
ENVS 394Entomology Laboratory2.0

 

 4. The Pathobiology Concentration

The Pathobiology concentration focuses on pathogenesis, and provides a unique option for students that differs from the more traditional disciplines in cell/molecular/genetics/biochemistry. This concentration is designed to appeal to students with an interest in pursuing careers in areas of public and allied health.

BIO 221Microbiology3.0
BIO 223Parasitology3.0
or BIO 420 Virology
BIO 320Microbial Pathogenesis3.0
BIO 426Immunology3.0
Select one Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) elective (see list below)3.0
Select two Organismal/Physiology electives (see list below)6.0
Select one Evolutionary Bio/Ecology elective (see list below)3.0
Concentration Laboratory Courses
Two Laboratory electives (see list below)4.0
Total Credits28.0

 

Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) electives:

BIO 244Genetics I3.0
BIO 311Biochemistry4.0
BIO 314Pharmacology3.0
BIO 318Biology of Cancer3.0
BIO 346Stem Cell Research3.0
BIO 404Structure and Function of Biomolecules4.0
BIO 410Advanced Molecular Biology3.0
BIO 414Behavioral Genetics3.0
BIO 415Proteins3.0
BIO 421Biomembranes3.0
BIO 430Cell Biology of Disease3.0
BIO 433Advanced Cell Biology3.0
BIO 444Human Genetics3.0
BIO 449Recombinant DNA Laboratory5.0
BIO 462Biology of Neuron Function3.0
BIO 463Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration3.0
BIO 465Neurobiology of Disease3.0
BIO 498Independent Study (by permission of the department)0.5-12.0

 

Organismal/Physiology electives

BIO 201Human Physiology I4.0
BIO 221Microbiology3.0
BIO 223Parasitology3.0
BIO 256Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology3.0
BIO 260Plant Biology I4.0
BIO 262Plant Biology II4.0
BIO 270Development Biology3.0
BIO 284Biology of Stress3.0
BIO 310Comparative Physiology3.0
BIO 322Mycology4.5
BIO 368Embryology4.0
BIO 370Teratology3.0
BIO 386Gross Anatomy I2.0
BIO 388Gross Anatomy II2.0
BIO 412Biology of Aging3.0
BIO 420Virology3.0
BIO 424Microbial Physiology3.0
BIO 435Immunobiology of Disease3.0
BIO 466Endocrinology4.0
ENVS 254Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology3.0

 

Ecology/Evolution/Genomics electives

BIO 228Evolutionary Biology & Human Health3.0
BIO 331Bioinformatics I3.0
BIO 413Genomics3.0
BIO 436Human Population Genetics4.0
ENVS 230General Ecology3.0
ENVS 247Native Plants and Sustainability3.0
ENVS 323Tropical Field Studies3.0
ENVS 328Conservation Biology3.0
ENVS 343Equatorial Guinea: Field Methods3.0
ENVS 360Evolutionary Developmental Biology3.0
ENVS 364Animal Behavior3.0
ENVS 382Field Botany of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 383Ecology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 391Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Algae3.0
ENVS 438Biodiversity3.0
ENVS 470Advanced Topics in Evolution3.0

 

Laboratory electives

BIO 202Human Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 215 [WI] Techniques in Cell Biology2.5
BIO 222Microbiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 257Vertebrate Morphology & Physiology Lab2.0
BIO 271Developmental Biology Laboratory2.0
BIO 306Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 313Comparative Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 333Bioinformatics Laboratory2.0
BIO 387Gross Anatomy I Laboratory2.0
BIO 389Gross Anatomy II Lab2.0
BIO 406Computational Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 427Immunology Laboratory2.0
BIO 449Recombinant DNA Laboratory5.0
BIO 497Research (by permission of the department)0.5-12.0
ENVS 255Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology Lab2.0
ENVS 344Equatorial Guinea: Field Research6.0
ENVS 365Animal Behavior Laboratory2.0

 

5. The General Biology Concentration

This concentration will allow maximum flexibility for students who want to develop their own unique plan of study. The concentration is designed for students who may not have one specific area of interest, but who are looking to be well-rounded in the biological sciences. Students pursuing careers in education, where a wider breadth of knowledge in biology is desirable, may choose to select this concentration.

General Biology Concentration Electives24.0
2 or 3 Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) electives (see list below)
2 or 3 Organismal/Physiology electives (see list below)
2 or 3 Ecology/Evolution/Genomics electives (see list below)
Concentration Laboratory Courses
Two Laboratory electives (see list below)4.0
Total Credits28.0

Cell/Molecular/Genetics/Biochemistry (CMGB) electives

BIO 231Cell Physiology3.0
BIO 244Genetics I3.0
BIO 311Biochemistry4.0
BIO 314Pharmacology3.0
BIO 318Biology of Cancer3.0
BIO 331Bioinformatics I3.0
BIO 332Bioinformatics II3.0
BIO 346Stem Cell Research3.0
BIO 404Structure and Function of Biomolecules4.0
BIO 413Genomics3.0
BIO 415Proteins3.0
BIO 421Biomembranes3.0
BIO 430Cell Biology of Disease3.0
BIO 433Advanced Cell Biology3.0
BIO 444Human Genetics3.0
BIO 445Microbial Genetics3.0
BIO 447Advanced Genetics and Molecular Biology3.0
BIO 449Recombinant DNA Laboratory5.0
BIO 451Genetic Reg Development3.0
BIO 462Biology of Neuron Function3.0
BIO 465Neurobiology of Disease3.0
ENVS 326Molecular Ecology3.0
BIO 498Independent Study (by permission of the department)0.5-12.0

 

Organismal/Physiology electives

BIO 201Human Physiology I4.0
BIO 203Human Physiology II4.0
BIO 221Microbiology3.0
BIO 223Parasitology3.0
BIO 256Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology5.0
BIO 260Plant Biology I4.0
BIO 262Plant Biology II4.0
BIO 264Ethnobotany3.0
BIO 270Development Biology3.0
BIO 284Biology of Stress3.0
BIO 310Comparative Physiology3.0
BIO 320Microbial Pathogenesis3.0
BIO 322Mycology4.5
BIO 368Embryology4.0
BIO 370Teratology3.0
BIO 386Gross Anatomy I2.0
BIO 388Gross Anatomy II2.0
BIO 412Biology of Aging3.0
BIO 420Virology3.0
BIO 424Microbial Physiology3.0
BIO 426Immunology3.0
BIO 435Immunobiology of Disease3.0
BIO 466Endocrinology4.0
ENVS 254Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology3.0
ENVS 392Ichthyology and Herpetology3.0
ENVS 393Entomology3.0

 

Ecology/Evolution/Genomics electives

BIO 228Evolutionary Biology & Human Health3.0
BIO 331Bioinformatics I3.0
BIO 332Bioinformatics II3.0
BIO 413Genomics4.0
ENVS 230General Ecology3.0
ENVS 247Native Plants and Sustainability3.0
ENVS 284 [WI] Physiological and Population Ecology3.0
ENVS 286Community and Ecosystem Ecology3.0
ENVS 315Plant Animal Interactions3.0
ENVS 322Tropical Ecology3.0
ENVS 323Tropical Field Studies3.0
ENVS 324Microbial Ecology3.0
ENVS 328Conservation Biology3.0
ENVS 330Aquatic Ecology3.0
ENVS 336Terrestrial Ecology5.0
ENVS 343Equatorial Guinea: Field Methods3.0
ENVS 360Evolutionary Developmental Biology3.0
ENVS 364Animal Behavior3.0
ENVS 382Field Botany of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 383Ecology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 388Marine Field Methods4.0
ENVS 390Marine Ecology3.0
ENVS 391Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Algae3.0
ENVS 410Physiological Ecology3.0
ENVS 412Biophysical Ecology3.0
ENVS 413Advanced Population Ecology3.0
ENVS 414Advanced Community Ecology3.0
ENVS 438Biodiversity3.0
ENVS 470Advanced Topics in Evolution3.0
ENVS 520Field Methods of Paleoecology3.0

 

Laboratory electives

BIO 202Human Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 215 [WI] Techniques in Cell Biology2.5
BIO 222Microbiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 255Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 256Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology5.0
BIO 271Developmental Biology Laboratory2.0
BIO 306Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 313Comparative Physiology Laboratory2.0
BIO 333Bioinformatics Laboratory2.0
BIO 387Gross Anatomy I Laboratory2.0
BIO 389Gross Anatomy II Lab2.0
BIO 406Computational Biochemistry Laboratory2.0
BIO 427Immunology Laboratory2.0
BIO 449Recombinant DNA Laboratory5.0
BIO 497Research (by permission of the department)0.5-12.0
ENVS 255Invertebrate Morphology and Physiology Lab2.0
ENVS 285 [WI] Population Ecology Laboratory2.0
ENVS 287Community Ecology Laboratory2.0
ENVS 327Molecular Ecology Laboratory2.0
ENVS 344Equatorial Guinea: Field Research6.0
ENVS 365Animal Behavior Laboratory2.0
ENVS 382Field Botany of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 383Ecology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens4.0
ENVS 388Marine Field Methods4.0
ENVS 394Entomology Laboratory2.0

 

Note about laboratory credits: BIO 449, ENVS 336, ENVS 382 and ENVS 388 have both a lecture and laboratory component.

 

Writing-Intensive Course Requirements

In order to graduate, all students must pass three writing-intensive courses after their freshman year. Two writing-intensive courses must be in a student's major. The third can be in any discipline. Students are advised to take one writing-intensive class each year, beginning with the sophomore year, and to avoid “clustering” these courses near the end of their matriculation. Transfer students need to meet with an academic advisor to review the number of writing-intensive courses required to graduate.

A "WI" next to a course in this catalog may indicate that this course can fulfill a writing-intensive requirement. For the most up-to-date list of writing-intensive courses being offered, students should check the Writing Intensive Course List at the University Writing Center. Students scheduling their courses can also conduct a search for courses with the attribute "WI" to bring up a list of all writing-intensive courses available that term. Transfer students need to meet with an academic advisor to review the number of writing-intensive courses required to graduate.

Sample Plans of Study 

Biological Sciences Major: Four-year Co-op

(Additional sample plans for other co-op options can be viewed below.)

Term 1Credits
BIO 122Cells and Genetics4.5
CHEM 101General Chemistry I3.5
ENGL 101Composition and Rhetoric I: Inquiry and Exploratory Research3.0
MATH 121
or 101
Calculus I
Introduction to Analysis I
4.0
UNIV S101The Drexel Experience1.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 2
BIO 124Evolution & Organismal Diversity4.5
CHEM 102General Chemistry II4.5
ENGL 102Composition and Rhetoric II: The Craft of Persuasion3.0
MATH 122
or 102
Calculus II
Introduction to Analysis II
4.0
CIVC 101Introduction to Civic Engagement1.0
 Term Credits17.0
Term 3
BIO 126Physiology and Ecology4.5
CHEM 103General Chemistry III5.0
ENGL 103Composition and Rhetoric III: Thematic Analysis Across Genres3.0
MATH 239
or 123
Mathematics for the Life Sciences
Calculus III
4.0
COOP 101Career Management and Professional Development0.0
 Term Credits16.5
Term 4
BIO 207Applications in Biology I1.0
BIO 209Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology I4.0
BIO 219 [WI] Techniques in Molecular Biology3.0
CHEM 241Organic Chemistry I4.0
PHYS 152Introductory Physics I4.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 5
BIO 208Applications in Biology II1.0
BIO 211Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology II4.0
Biology Laboratory Requirement*2.0
CHEM 242Organic Chemistry II4.0
PHYS 153Introductory Physics II4.0
UNIV S201Looking Forward: Academics and Careers1.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 6
BIO 311
or CHEM 243
Biochemistry
Organic Chemistry III
4.0
ENVS 212Evolution4.0
PHYS 154Introductory Physics III4.0
PHIL 251Ethics3.0
 Term Credits15.0
Term 7
Sci, tech, health & human affairs elective3.0
BIO 224Form, Function & Evolution of Vertebrates4.0
BIO 225Vertebrate Biology and Evolution Laboratory2.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
Biology Laboratory Requirement2.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 8
Free Elective3.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
COM 230Techniques of Speaking3.0
MATH 410Scientific Data Analysis I3.0
Free Elective 3.0
 Term Credits15.0
Term 9
COM 310 [WI] Technical Communication3.0
MATH 411Scientific Data Analysis II3.0
Humanities/Social Science Elective 3.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
Free Elective 3.0
 Term Credits15.0
Term 10
BIO 471Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
BIO/ENVS Electives 6.0
Free Electives 6.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 11
BIO 472Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
Free Elective 3.0
Humanities/Social Science Elective 3.0
BIO/ENVS Electives 6.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 12
BIO 473 [WI] Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
Free Electives 6.0
Humanities/Social Science Elective 3.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
 Term Credits14.0
Total Credit: 182.5

*

 See degree requirements.

Biological Sciences Major: Five-year Co-op

Term 1Credits
BIO 122Cells and Genetics4.5
CHEM 101General Chemistry I3.5
ENGL 101Composition and Rhetoric I: Inquiry and Exploratory Research3.0
MATH 121
or 101
Calculus I
Introduction to Analysis I
4.0
UNIV S101The Drexel Experience1.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 2
BIO 124Evolution & Organismal Diversity4.5
CHEM 102General Chemistry II4.5
ENGL 102Composition and Rhetoric II: The Craft of Persuasion3.0
MATH 122
or 102
Calculus II
Introduction to Analysis II
4.0
CIVC 101Introduction to Civic Engagement1.0
 Term Credits17.0
Term 3
BIO 126Physiology and Ecology4.5
CHEM 103General Chemistry III5.0
ENGL 103Composition and Rhetoric III: Thematic Analysis Across Genres3.0
MATH 239
or 123
Mathematics for the Life Sciences
Calculus III
4.0
COOP 101Career Management and Professional Development0.0
 Term Credits16.5
Term 4
BIO 207Applications in Biology I1.0
BIO 209Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology I4.0
BIO 219 [WI] Techniques in Molecular Biology3.0
CHEM 241Organic Chemistry I4.0
PHYS 152Introductory Physics I4.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 5
BIO 208Applications in Biology II1.0
BIO 211Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology II4.0
Biology Laboratory Requirement2.0
CHEM 242Organic Chemistry II4.0
PHYS 153Introductory Physics II4.0
UNIV S201Looking Forward: Academics and Careers1.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 6
BIO 311
or CHEM 243
Biochemistry
Organic Chemistry III
4.0
ENVS 212Evolution4.0
PHYS 154Introductory Physics III4.0
PHIL 251Ethics3.0
 Term Credits15.0
Term 7
BIO 224Form, Function & Evolution of Vertebrates4.0
BIO 225Vertebrate Biology and Evolution Laboratory2.0
BIO/ENVS Elective3.0
Humanities/Social Science Elective 3.0
Sci, tech, health & human affairs elective3.0
 Term Credits15.0
Term 8
COM 230Techniques of Speaking3.0
MATH 410Scientific Data Analysis I3.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
Free Elective 6.0
 Term Credits15.0
Term 9
COM 310 [WI] Technical Communication3.0
MATH 411Scientific Data Analysis II3.0
Biology Laboratory Requirement Course*2.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
Free Elective 3.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 10
BIO 471Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
BIO/ENVS Electives 6.0
Free Electives 6.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 11
BIO 472Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
Free Elective 3.0
Humanities/Social Science Elective 3.0
BIO/ENVS Electives 6.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 12
BIO 473 [WI] Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
Free Electives6.0
Humanities/Social Science Elective 3.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
 Term Credits14.0
Total Credit: 182.5

*

 See degree requirements.

Biological Sciences Major: Four-year Non-co-op

Term 1Credits
BIO 122Cells and Genetics4.5
CHEM 101General Chemistry I3.5
ENGL 101Composition and Rhetoric I: Inquiry and Exploratory Research3.0
MATH 121
or 101
Calculus I
Introduction to Analysis I
4.0
UNIV S101The Drexel Experience1.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 2
BIO 124Evolution & Organismal Diversity4.5
ENGL 102Composition and Rhetoric II: The Craft of Persuasion3.0
CHEM 102General Chemistry II4.5
MATH 122
or 102
Calculus II
Introduction to Analysis II
4.0
CIVC 101Introduction to Civic Engagement1.0
 Term Credits17.0
Term 3
BIO 126Physiology and Ecology4.5
ENGL 103Composition and Rhetoric III: Thematic Analysis Across Genres3.0
CHEM 103General Chemistry III5.0
MATH 239
or 123
Mathematics for the Life Sciences
Calculus III
4.0
 Term Credits16.5
Term 4
BIO 207Applications in Biology I1.0
BIO 209Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology I4.0
BIO 219 [WI] Techniques in Molecular Biology3.0
CHEM 241Organic Chemistry I4.0
PHYS 152Introductory Physics I4.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 5
BIO 208Applications in Biology II1.0
BIO 211Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology II4.0
Biology Laboratory Requirement2.0
CHEM 242Organic Chemistry II4.0
PHYS 153Introductory Physics II4.0
UNIV S201Looking Forward: Academics and Careers1.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 6
BIO 224Form, Function & Evolution of Vertebrates4.0
BIO 225Vertebrate Biology and Evolution Laboratory2.0
BIO 311
or CHEM 243
Biochemistry
Organic Chemistry III
4.0
PHYS 154Introductory Physics III4.0
PHIL 251Ethics3.0
 Term Credits17.0
Term 7
Humanities/Social Science Elective3.0
MATH 410Scientific Data Analysis I3.0
ENVS 212Evolution4.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
Sci, tech, health & human affairs elective3.0
 Term Credits16.0
Term 8
Humanities/Social Science Elective3.0
COM 310 [WI] Technical Communication3.0
MATH 411Scientific Data Analysis II3.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
 Term Credits12.0
Term 9
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
Biology Laboratory Requirement Course*2.0
COM 230Techniques of Speaking3.0
Humanities/Social Science Elective 3.0
Free Elective 3.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 10
BIO 471Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
BIO/ENVS Electives 6.0
Free Electives 6.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 11
BIO 472Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
Free Elective 6.0
BIO/ENVS Electives 6.0
 Term Credits14.0
Term 12
BIO 473 [WI] Seminar in Biological Sciences2.0
Free Electives 9.0
BIO/ENVS Elective 3.0
 Term Credits14.0
Total Credit: 182.5

*

 See degree requirements.


Co-op/Career Opportunities

Opportunities

Students earn a bachelor’s degree in the biological sciences and are prepared for technical careers in research or commercial laboratories or for professional schools.

Graduates typically work for pharmaceutical companies, medical research laboratories, biotechnology companies, or in government laboratories. Many graduates also choose to pursue an advanced degree in the field.

Co-op Opportunitiess

Past co-op employers of biosciences majors have included:

  • GlaxoSmithKline
  • AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals
  • Wistar Institute
  • Moss Rehab
  • ViroPharma, Inc.
  • NovaFlora, Inc.
  • Wyeth

Visit the Drexel Steinbright Career Development Center page for more detailed information on co-op and post-graduate opportunities.

Dual/Accelerated Degree

Combined Bachelors/Masters Degree

Qualified students can take graduate courses in their junior and senior years for undergraduate or graduate credit. They can also complete a combined BS /MS degree in five years. Further questions about the BS /MS degree program should be directed to the departmental graduate advisor:

Krista Featherstone
Graduate Program Manager
Department of Biology
215.895.6374
kaf344@drexel.edu

Minor in Biological Sciences

The minor in biological sciences is designed for students who wish to become acquainted with the life sciences while pursuing a major in another area. This option should be particularly useful for students majoring in areas such as chemistry, engineering, physics, or psychology who are interested in admission to medical schools or graduate programs. Students interested in the minor should consult with an academic advisor in the department for help with course selections.

Required Courses *
BIO 122Cells and Genetics4.5
BIO 124Evolution & Organismal Diversity4.5
BIO 126Physiology and Ecology4.5
BIO 218Principles of Molecular Biology4.0
BIO 224Form, Function & Evolution of Vertebrates4.0
ENVS 212Evolution4.0
Total Credits25.5

*

A grade of "C"  or better must be earned for each course in this minor for the course to meet the requirement.

Facilities

The Department of Biology has well-equipped teaching laboratories with networked computers and advanced digital image analysis capability. Both teaching and research laboratories contain a range of modern equipment including microscopes, centrifuges, chromatographs, spectrophotometers, scintillation counters, culture chambers, and densitometers.

Visit the Biology Research Assets page for more information.

Courses

BIO 100 Applied Cells, Genetics & Physiology 3.0 Credits

This course is designed to provide a topical and interactive introduction to biology for non-majors. Students will learn how trillions of tiny cells of our bodies work together in organ systems to use food for energy, to keep us alive, moving and healthy, and how information passes to subsequent generations. This course is identical to BIO 107.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO
Corequisite: EXAM 080

BIO 101 Applied Biological Diversity, Ecology & Evolution 3.0 Credits

An interactive course for the non-major that discusses the variety of living things and how we ended up with them and what makes them unique. This course also explores how living things affect each other and the world as well as the impacts that humans have on the living world. This course is identical to BIO 109.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO
Corequisite: EXAM 080

BIO 107 Cells, Genetics & Physiology 3.0 Credits

This course is designed to provide a topical and interactive introduction to biology for non-majors. Students will learn how trillions of tiny cells of our bodies work together in organ systems to use food for energy, to keep us alive, moving and healthy, and how information passes to subsequent generations. This course is identical to BIO 100.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO
Corequisites: BIO 108, EXAM 080

BIO 108 Cells, Genetics and Physiology Laboratory 1.0 Credit

This course is designed to be a companion course to the BIO 107 lecture. Labs are focused on providing students with a hands-on approach to science. Topics include how cells generate energy from food, how certain characteristics are genetically encoded and the physiology of human systems and diseases.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO
Corequisite: BIO 107

BIO 109 Biological Diversity, Ecology & Evolution 3.0 Credits

An interactive course for the non-major that discusses the variety of living things and how we ended up with them and what makes them unique. This course also explores how living things affect each other and the world as well as the impacts that humans have on the living world. This course is identical to BIO 101.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO
Corequisites: BIO 110, EXAM 080

BIO 110 Biological Diversity, Ecology and Evolution Laboratory 1.0 Credit

A companion course to BIO 109 that provides a hands on exploration of the diversity of life including microbes, plants and animals as well as the processes that give rise to this diversity. The labs also provide practical exploration of the impacts of human beings on the planet.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO
Corequisite: BIO 109

BIO 112 Biotechnology for Society 3.0 Credits

In Biotechnology for Society, students will become familiar with the fundamentals of genomic and cellular-based biotechnologies to begin to understand the roles that biotechnology is currently playing and is poised to play in society. Students will appreciate the complexity of those roles by investigating both the intended consequences and the potential and inadvertent ethical, legal and social implications of these technologies. This course is intended for non-science majors.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO or major is BME or major is CHEM or major is ENVS or major is HSCI

BIO 116 How Your Body Works-Or Not 3.0 Credits

How Your body Works-or Not is geared for non-major students hoping to explore the workings of their bodies. Students will explore why we evolved to have various organ systems, and how some systems accomplish their roles. We will explore how these systems can malfunction or fail, resulting in disease.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO or major is BME or major is CHEM or major is ENVS or major is HSCI

BIO 118 Basics of Cancer 3.0 Credits

This course provides an opportunity for students with little or no biology background to learn about cancer. Students can expect to learn what cancer is from a biological perspective, and how it is caused and treated. Students will also gain a basic understanding of how tumors form, and metastasize.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO or major is BME

BIO 122 Cells and Genetics 4.5 Credits

An introduction to the concepts of cell and function, cell and reproduction, cell communication, genetic inheritance, and population genetics. The relevance of genetics to society and ethical issues are included.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Corequisite: EXAM 080

BIO 124 Evolution & Organismal Diversity 4.5 Credits

Students will learn about the theory of evolution and the mechanisms of how organisms change. Using this knowledge, students will explore the diversity of organisms on Earth that is a hallmark of biology and the result of evolution by examining the representative members from the five major kingdoms of life.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Corequisite: EXAM 080

BIO 126 Physiology and Ecology 4.5 Credits

The first half of the course will survey physiological systems, including the respiratory, circulatory, homeostatic, excretory, and digestive systems in animals. The second half of the course will emphasize the relationships between organisms and the environment, including how humans impact ecosystems and the biosphere.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Corequisite: EXAM 080

BIO 141 Essential Biology 4.5 Credits

Introduces essential biological concepts to engineering students. Content covers five core topics: cells, genetics, evolution, ecology and physiology with application to societal concerns about biotechnology, health, conservation biodiversity and bioethics. Evolution will be woven throughout the course as a unifying theme in understanding all aspects of biology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is CS
Prerequisites: CHEM 102 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: EXAM 080

BIO 161 General Biology I 3.0 Credits

Covers structure and function of the cell and the organ-system plan of organization of the human body. Fall.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman

BIO 162 General Biology II 3.0 Credits

Continues BIO 161. Covers the mechanics of heredity, including growth, differentiation, and development. Winter.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 161 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 163 General Biology III 3.0 Credits

Continues BIO 162. Covers the plant and animal kingdoms, radiobiology, evolution, and ecology. Spring.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 162 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 164 General Biology Laboratory I 1.0 Credit

In this course students will perform computer simulations of laboratory exercises related to photosynthesis, enzyme activity and kinetics, the cardiovascular, muscle and bone systems, regulation of human organ systems as well as plant growth and development.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Corequisite: BIO 161

BIO 165 General Biology Laboratory II 1.0 Credit

In this course students will perform computer simulations of laboratory exercises related to cell division, mendelian genetics, DNA replication, translation and mutations. They will work with simulated microscopes to observe viral and microbial specimens. Additionally, students will learn and simulate biotechnology techniques such as DNA fingerprinting.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 161 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 162

BIO 166 General Biology Laboratory III 1.0 Credit

Involves experiments demonstrating the key principles in ecology and evolution including: population parameters, food webs, species interactions, succession, eutriphication, natural selection, sexual selection and evolutionary trees.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 162 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 163

BIO 201 Human Physiology I 4.0 Credits

Intensive survey of the basic physiological mechanisms of cellular and human electrophysiology and the physiology of the muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 141 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 122 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 202 Human Physiology Laboratory 2.0 Credits

Laboratory course in human physiology. Designed to accompany BIO 201 and 203 Human Physiology I and II. Uses simulation, experimenters and data acquisition techniques to provide practical experience in the design and execution of physiological experiments and analysis of physiological data. Some or all pre-requisites may be taken as either a pre-requisite or co-requisite. Please see the department for more information.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 201 [Min Grade: D] (Can be taken Concurrently)

BIO 203 Human Physiology II 4.0 Credits

Intensive survey of the control mechanisms of cellular and human physiology including introductions to control theory, neurophysiology, endocrine control, and control mechanisms in locomotion, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, acid/base, gastrointestinal, and reproductive physiology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 201 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 207 Applications in Biology I 1.0 Credit

The aim of this course is to allow students to apply knowledge from biology courses to understand important articles from the frontiers of biology research, in order to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. Students will learn to read primary research, to think critically about research and interpret data.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 208 Applications in Biology II 1.0 Credit

In this course, students will further develop and practice skills introduced in the Applications in Biology I course by reading and interpreting research from primary articles. This will include historical experiments and controversial research. This will help students develop critical thinking, scientific reasoning and problem solving skills.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 207 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 209 Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology I 4.0 Credits

In this course, students will cover essential topics in cell, molecular, and developmental biology. Topics, such as protein structure function relationships, enzymes, structural & functional properties of nucleic acids, transcription & translation, regulation of gene expression, eukaryotic cell structure, cell membranes and membrane transport. Commonly used techniques in biochemistry, molecular & cellular biology will be discussed.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 211 Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology II 4.0 Credits

In this course, students will learn about molecular, cellular and developmental biology at a higher level than in introductory coursework. This second course in the sequence will focus on cell biological processes such as: vesicular trafficking, signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle, cell death, tissue organization, stem cells and development. At the end of this course, students should have a strong foundation in cell and developmental biology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 209 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 212 Biotechnology 3.0 Credits

Covers the use of recombinant DNA techniques in biotechnology. Explores the many uses of biotechnology in the biological, agricultural and medical field. Also covers the social, ethical and environmental issues involved in this discipline.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 214 Principles of Cell Biology 3.0 Credits

The course familiarizes students with the basic fundamentals and principles of cell biology. Topics include protein and enzymes as metabolic facilitators, the source and function of cellular energy, cell structure and function, cellular protein transport, cell communication, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and cell differentiation.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 104 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 215 [WI] Techniques in Cell Biology 2.5 Credits

A course designed to introduce students to the lad techniques used by cell biologists. Microscopy is used for cell structure and their organelles, phagocytosis, cytoskeletal structure, muscle contraction and cell motility. Other topics include fractional by centrifugation, protein separation and quantification, and gel electrophoresis. This is a writing intensive course.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 104 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or TDEC 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 117 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 218 Principles of Molecular Biology 4.0 Credits

The course is designed to familiarize students with the details and concepts revolving around molecular biology's "central dogma." Specifically the chemical nature of DNA and RNA, the molecular structure of DNA and chromosomes, the definition of a gene, how DNA is replicated, and how genes are expresses and regulated.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 219 [WI] Techniques in Molecular Biology 3.0 Credits

Designed to familiarize student with laboratory techniques utilized in molecular biology, specifically DNA isolation, characterization, and manipulation. Students work in teams to collect and analyze data and explain results in laboratory reports. Weekly recitations preview and review theory and techniques used in the lab. Some or all pre-requisites may be taken as either a pre-requisite or co-requisite. Please see the department for more information. This is a writing intensive course.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 220 Essential Microbiology 3.0 Credits

Covers morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa, and viruses. Introduces the principles of microbial genetics, disease, and control of microorganisms. This course is identical to BIO 221.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if major is BIO
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 221 Microbiology 3.0 Credits

Covers morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and viruses. Introduces the principles of microbial genetics, disease, and control of microorganisms.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 222

BIO 222 Microbiology Laboratory 2.0 Credits

An introduction to microbiological techniques, and culture of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Includes sterile techniques, and use of specialized microscopic techniques. Classical and molecular techniques of microbial identification are also covered.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 221

BIO 223 Parasitology 3.0 Credits

Parasitology explores the most predominant lifestyle on earth, parasitism. Students will learn how parasites invade and exploit their hosts, the resultant damage to the hosts, and the mechanisms by which hosts defend and protect themselves from these invaders.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 124 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 224 Form, Function & Evolution of Vertebrates 4.0 Credits

This course is an introduction to principles of organismal biology from the perspective of form, function and evolution of fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. Many biological principles are well known in this group of animals. Data from areas as diverse as paleontology, ecology and molecular biology will be presented.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 121 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 124 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 126 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 225 Vertebrate Biology and Evolution Laboratory 2.0 Credits

A hands-on laboratory course that complements BIO 224: Form, Function & Evolution of Vertebrates. Students use the comparative approach to learn about the anatomy, physiology and evolution of vertebrates. Laboratory work will be on campus and in the field trips to observe vertebrates in nature.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 224 [Min Grade: D] (Can be taken Concurrently)

BIO 226 Microbiology for Health Professionals 5.0 Credits

An introduction to microbiology for students in the health professions. Covers the diversity of microorganisms, their growth and how to control them. An introduction to the principles of disease and pathogenicity, host interaction and immunological response. Laboratories focus on the basic techniques to culture and student microorganisms.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit

BIO 227 Exploring Parasites 2.0 Credits

Exploring Parasites Laboratory will safely introduce students to hands-on experiences with a vast diversity of human parasites to understand their evolutionary adaptations. Students will learn to culture Giardia lamblia, an enteric parasite, and design a term-long research project to study an aspect of Giardia biology of student interest.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 223 [Min Grade: C] (Can be taken Concurrently)

BIO 228 Evolutionary Biology & Human Health 3.0 Credits

This course illustrates the importance and utility of evolutionary perspectives on various topics related to human health. In addition to the "how" questions, this course also introduces the "why" questions. Various evolutionary hypotheses are examined. Arguments for and counter-arguments against each hypothesis are presented to foster understanding of each topic. Selected topics include infectious diseases, pathogen virulence, allergies/asthma, mental health/addiction, genetic disorders, diseases of civilization, sex, pregnancy, aging, and public health concerns.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] and BIO 124 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 231 Cell Physiology 3.0 Credits

Molecular biology of the cell, including regulation of function, genetic mechanisms, chemistry and structure of cellular components, and cell-to-cell interactions.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 244 Genetics I 3.0 Credits

Surveys Mendelian, microbial, molecular, and population genetics. Discusses model systems and analytical methods used by geneticists to understand gene functions at cellular, organismal, and population levels.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 256 Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology 3.0 Credits

Provides comparative study of the major vertebrate groups, relationships between physiology and organismal structure, evolutionary history, comparative anatomy, and development.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 224 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 257

BIO 257 Vertebrate Morphology & Physiology Lab 2.0 Credits

A hands-on laboratory course that complements BIO 256: Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. Students will use comparative dissections of representative vertebrates to understand the anatomy and evolution of major vertebrate groups.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 224 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 256

BIO 260 Plant Biology I 4.0 Credits

This course provides an understanding of phylogenetic relationships among plant families. Students see the practical results of evolution by examining and comparing the properties of existing plant families.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 101 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 104 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 109 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 123 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 124 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 262 Plant Biology II 4.0 Credits

In this course, students learn the structure and function of higher vascular plants as organisms. Plant development, growth and behavior are examined at both the molecular and structural levels to give a comprehensive view of the plant and its environment.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 260 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 264 Ethnobotany 3.0 Credits

This course explores the relation between ancient/cultural botanical knowledge and its current application in modern pharmacology and alternative forms of medicine. It provides an interdisciplinary approach to the study of plants for food, medicine, stimulation, religious rituals and death.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit

BIO 270 Development Biology 3.0 Credits

Covers molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying development of animals from gametes to adults. Covers the major stages and selected aspects of vertebrate development in importance animal model systems. Particular focus in on the importance of differential gene expression and its regulation in development.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: (BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] and BIO 218 [Min Grade: D]) or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 271 Developmental Biology Laboratory 2.0 Credits

Includes observations into development processes in a diverse group of organisms including developmental principles in simple multicellular protests, gametogenesis in diverse animal, fertilization in sea urchins, embryonic development of vertebrates, regeneration of planarians, and the role of gene regulation in fruit fly development. Some or all pre-requisites may be taken as either a pre-requisite or co-requisite. Please see the department for more information.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 270 [Min Grade: D] (Can be taken Concurrently)

BIO 284 Biology of Stress 3.0 Credits

This course focuses on the biological responses to the physical and psychological stress, discussing in turn stress responses in various organ systems. Emphasis is given to the analysis and evaluation of conflicting biological evidence on stress effects.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 100 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 101 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 107 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 109 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 306 Biochemistry Laboratory 2.0 Credits

Covers biochemical techniques ranging from basic laboratory preparatory work such as making solutions to the measurement of enzyme kinetics and substrate specificity.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: CHEM 242 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 310 Comparative Physiology 3.0 Credits

Provides comparative study of the physiology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Examines physiological principles by studying cardiovascular adaptations, water balance, respiratory adaptations, and other homeostatic mechanisms in model systems, including fish, amphibians, mammals, birds, and invertebrates.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 201 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 224 [Min Grade: D] or ENVS 284 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 311 Biochemistry 4.0 Credits

Covers bioenergetics and metabolism; enzymes, substrates, products, coenzymes, transporters, pathways (catabolic and anabolic for carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides). Intracellular regulation, intercellular regulation, and how all this serves to meet the need of the cell and organism.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: CHEM 242 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 312 Genetically Modified Foods 2.0 Credits

Covers the application of recombinant DNA techniques in the creation of genetically modified foods. Explores the many uses of these food. Also covers the social, ethical and environmental issues involved in the use of genetically modified foods.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 100 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 107 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 313 Comparative Physiology Laboratory 2.0 Credits

Computational laboratory examining quantitative facets of vertebrate physiology through simulation experiments. Complements BIO 310 Comparative Physiology. Example systems examined include gas and solute exchangers, open vs closed circulations, and thermoregulatory controllers. Some or all pre-requisites may be taken as either a pre-requisite or co-requisite. Please see the department for more information.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 310 [Min Grade: D] (Can be taken Concurrently)

BIO 314 Pharmacology 3.0 Credits

In this course, students will apply their studies of chemistry and biology to understand how drugs: are designed, affect the body, and are affected by the body. Students can expect to learn the fundamentals of pharmacology, and to discuss current topics and novel approaches being used to design new therapeutics.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 318 Biology of Cancer 3.0 Credits

In this course, students will apply their studies of cell and molecular biology to understand cancer pathology. Starting with a fundamental knowledge of normal cellular processes, students will learn how normal processes go awry in tumor development and metastasis, and the current approaches being used to develop new cancer therapeutics.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: (BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] and BIO 218 [Min Grade: D]) or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 320 Microbial Pathogenesis 3.0 Credits

Covers mechanisms of pathogenesis in microbial disease: transmission, prevention, public health. Also covers molecular basis of microbial pathogenesis.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: (BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]) and BIO 221 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 322 Mycology 4.5 Credits

Covers morphology, taxonomy, and physiology of yeasts and molds, with emphasis on species of economic importance; plant and animal pathogens; industrial fermentations; toxin production; decomposition of organic materials; and fungal morphogenesis.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 221 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 331 Bioinformatics I 3.0 Credits

This course uses a combination of lecture and hands-on exercises to develop computational, algorithmic, and database navigation skills utilized in the analysis of genes and genomes. Topics include genomic databases, genome annotation, sequence alignment, metagenomic analyses, and phytogenetics.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 332 Bioinformatics II 3.0 Credits

This course continues the application of computational algorithms for manipulation and analysis of biological information covered in BIO 331 (Bioinformatics I). It covers genomic and proteome informatic approaches and applications for determining evolutionary relationships, discovery of protein structure/function relationships and bioengineering of proteins by molecular modeling by homology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 331 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 333 Bioinformatics Laboratory 2.0 Credits

In this course, students develop and apply computational skills in bioinformatics to address a quarter-long research project. Topics generally focus on the ecology and evolution of microbes, which have become much easier to study thanks to the advent of molecular tools and software for the analysis of DNA sequences.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] (Can be taken Concurrently) or BIO 141 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 346 Stem Cell Research 3.0 Credits

This course will focus on recent and important topics relevant to stem cell research and development. Topics will include nuclear reprogramming and epigenetics, environmental influences on stem cell differentiation, stem cells and cancer, stem-cell-based therapies for heart and neurodegenerative disorders, stem cells and ageing, and politics of stem cell research.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 368 Embryology 4.0 Credits

This course surveys general features of developing systems, and focuses on the developmental history of adult structures and functions in humans. Human developmental defects are also discusses.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 224 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 370 Teratology 3.0 Credits

This course will expand on the concepts of developmental biology by examining the agents that interfere with normal development. We will be exploring these agents through presentations and discussion of current peer reviewed literature. The focus will be on an understanding of mechanisms of action and how they are influenced by dose pharmacology and genetics.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 270 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 368 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 386 Gross Anatomy I 2.0 Credits

This course is to give students an understanding of Human Anatomy in a clinical format. Anatomy will be studied in a regional manner with an emphasis placed on landmarks and relationships of structure within a region. Regions covered to include the back, upper limb, thorax, and abdomen.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if classification is Junior or Senior.
Prerequisites: (BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] and BIO 218 [Min Grade: D]) or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 387

BIO 387 Gross Anatomy I Laboratory 2.0 Credits

This course is to accompany the Gross Anatomy lecture course and complements the students study of human anatomy by allowing the student to hone their dissection skills through dissection of a preserved mammalian specimen.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if classification is Junior or Senior.
Prerequisites: (BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] and BIO 218 [Min Grade: D]) or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 386

BIO 388 Gross Anatomy II 2.0 Credits

This course is a continuation of the clinically focused study of Human Anatomy begun in BIO 386 (Gross Anatomy I). Anatomy will be studied in a regional fashion, with a focus on the pelvis, lower limb, head, and neck.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: (BIO 386 [Min Grade: D])
Corequisite: BIO 389

BIO 389 Gross Anatomy II Lab 2.0 Credits

This course is to accompany the Gross Anatomy lecture course and complements the students study of human anatomy by allowing the student to hone their dissection skills through dissection of a preserved mammalian specimen. This course is a direct continuation of BIO 387 (Gross Anatomy I Lab).

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 387 [Min Grade: D]
Corequisite: BIO 388

BIO 404 Structure and Function of Biomolecules 4.0 Credits

Covers the weak interactions which govern structure and function of biomolecules, including amino acids, proteins (structural organization, isolation, and methods of analysis). Enzymes (structure, catalytic mechanisms, kinetics), lipids and biomembranes, and DNA and RNA folding.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: CHEM 242 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 406 Computational Biochemistry Laboratory 2.0 Credits

This course uses kinetic analysis of biochemical data to increase the computational and numerical sophistication used to build sound models of the underlying biological processes. Students start with Excel as the analytical tool. MATLAB is then used as the complexity of the problems demands it.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: CHEM 242 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 410 Advanced Molecular Biology 3.0 Credits

This course will provide students the opportunity to learn about molecular mechanisms of gene expression and control, genome analysis and manipulation, and the use of advanced tools and techniques in molecular biology. The principles of molecular biology and techniques will be discussed in the context of model organisms commonly used for molecular biology research. The course will have a strong focus on experimental approaches, problem solving and on understanding literature in the field. At the conclusion of the course, students should have the background to design experiments, and read and discuss papers from the primary literature regarding different aspects of molecular biology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 412 Biology of Aging 3.0 Credits

Discusses ageing at the organismal, organ, cellular, and molecular levels. Discussions include chronological verses biological aging, normal and abnormal human physiology of aging, current theories of aging, the effect of caloric restriction on aging, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie normal and abnormal aging.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 413 Genomics 3.0 Credits

This course aims to elucidate current technologies, theory, and applications of genomic research. Though a large emphasis will be placed on the use of genomic tools to study human health, we will also study the genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes of bacteria, fungi, plants, and other animals.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 414 Behavioral Genetics 3.0 Credits

This course explores the role of genetics in determining variation in animal (including human) behavior, and the role of gene expression in regulating behavioral development. The course surveys techniques for quantifying and analyzing genetic variation, behavioral effects, and gene expression.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if classification is Junior or Senior.
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 107 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 415 Proteins 3.0 Credits

Discusses protein structure, function, and isolation. Emphasizes biochemical, biophysical, and molecular biological techniques.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 416 Biochemistry of Major Diseases 3.0 Credits

This course focuses on the biochemical bases of several selected human disorders including neoplasm, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and obesity. Biochemical changes ant their regulation by signaling pathways under the disease conditions will be examined. The relevance of diagnosis and treatment will be discussed.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 203 [Min Grade: C] or BIO 311 [Min Grade: C]

BIO 420 Virology 3.0 Credits

Discusses the major viral groups, including biochemistry and molecular genetics of viral replication, structure, gene expression, latency, and role in disease.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 421 Biomembranes 3.0 Credits

The experimental and theoretical basis for the structure and function of biological membranes will be surveyed. Topics include membrane self assembly, bilayer phase behavior and dynamics, membrane protein structure, passive and active transport, membrane fusion and trafficking.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 424 Microbial Physiology 3.0 Credits

Covers physiology and metabolism of microorganisms with emphasis on aspects unique to prokaryotes, including envelope structure, transport systems, modes of nutrition, biosynthesis, growth, and mechanisms of action of antibiotics.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 221 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 426 Immunology 3.0 Credits

Covers the fundamental concepts of innate and adaptive immunity, including the molecular and cellular mechanisms that generate responses to a broad spectrum of infectious threats, self-non-self recognition, immune regulation.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 427 Immunology Laboratory 2.0 Credits

Students will gain a more thorough understanding of the complexities of the mammalian immune system and will receive hands on experience with common models used in immunology labs. This course complements the Immunology lecture course (BIO 426). Some or all pre-requisites may be taken as either a pre-requisite or co-requisite. Please see the department for more information.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 426 [Min Grade: D] (Can be taken Concurrently)

BIO 430 Cell Biology of Disease 3.0 Credits

An introduction to the pathobiology of human disease as it relates to principles of cytoskeleton and membrane biology. The course reviews basic intracellular mechanisms and examines how they go awry in respiratory, heart and kidney diseases, diabetes, cancer, neurodegeneration and during viral and microbial infections.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 433 Advanced Cell Biology 3.0 Credits

Course covers chemical composition and cellular function of organelles and other cellular structures, intra- and inter- cellular regulatory processes, intercellular communication, genetic mechanisms and analytical techniques.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if major is BIO.
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 434 [WI] Advanced Cell Biology Laboratory 2.0 Credits

Course covers fundamentals of growth, division and homeostasis of mammalian cells grown in culture. Students perform experiments on cells to monitor cellular morphology, including subcellular structures and specific regulatory proteins. Techniques include fluorescent microscopy, cell transfection and subcellular fractionation. Some or all pre-requisites may be taken as either a pre-requisite or co-requisite. Please see the department for more information. This is a writing intensive course.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if major is BIO and classification is Senior.
Prerequisites: BIO 433 [Min Grade: D] (Can be taken Concurrently)

BIO 435 Immunobiology of Disease 3.0 Credits

This course will expand on the concepts of molecular immunology focusing on emerging concepts in immunology research, immunopathologies, failure of host defense and current clinical concepts.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 426 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 436 Human Population Genetics 4.0 Credits

This course surveys population genetics theory as applied to studies of micro-evolutionary changes. We will examine the forces of evolution—mutation, selection, inbreeding, gene flow, genetic drift—and how they can (and cannot) change allele frequencies in populations over time. We will apply the theory that you have learned by also examining current primary literature on human evolutionary history, population genetics and patterns of adaptation.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 122 [Min Grade: D] and BIO 124 [Min Grade: D] and (BIO 211 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 217 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or ENVS 212 [Min Grade: D])

BIO 442 Modeling Methods in Biology I 3.0 Credits

Offers practical experience in the modeling of simple biological systems, including the applications of linear, trigonometric, and exponential functions in biology and the use of differential and integral calculus, simple differential equations, and the Eulerian approach to simulation. Emphasizes practical computational use of such tools in biological problems. Offered in alternate years.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman

BIO 443 Modeling Methods in Biology II 3.0 Credits

Offers a practical introduction to the modeling of dynamic biological processes, including deterministic and stochastic processes. Emphasizes the development and construction of working models and the interpretation of results. Discusses both mechanistic and empirical/predictive models. Students develop their own model of a real-world biological process. Offered in alternate years.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 442 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 444 Human Genetics 3.0 Credits

Covers the fundamentals and principles of genetics with an emphasis on their relevance to human genetics and disease. Topics include human genetic disorders, pedigree analysis and genetic testing, cytogenetics, epigenetics, genetics if cancer, gene therapy, stem cell research, human genomics and biotechnology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 445 Microbial Genetics 3.0 Credits

Covers genetic organization and regulation in bacteriophage and bacteria, techniques of genetic manipulation of microbial genomes, genetic interactions of microbes under natural conditions and the use of microbial genome modification in industry.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: (BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]) and BIO 221 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 447 Advanced Genetics and Molecular Biology 3.0 Credits

Covers classical prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetics; DNA/RNA structure; DNA replication, transcription, translation and regulation of these processes. Also covers major molecular techniques used for characterizing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, tools for analysis of genomes, and applications of molecular genetics research.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if major is BIO.
Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: (BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]) and BIO 244 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 449 Recombinant DNA Laboratory 5.0 Credits

Covers procedures of DNA isolation and purification, insertion of DNA sequences into plasmid cloning vectors, introduction of plasmids into appropriate host cells, and methods of recovering and analyzing cloned DNA.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 451 Genetic Reg Development 3.0 Credits

Covers molecular and genetic control of morphogenesis and cellular differentiation. Focuses on differential gene function and the interaction between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 270 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 453 Protein Dysfunction in Disease 3.0 Credits

Proteins are essential for the function and health of the cell. Misfolded and damaged proteins are at the root of numerous human diseases, known collectively as conformational diseases. In this course we will examine cellular mechanisms involved in biosynthesis, folding and maintenance of proteins, and discuss how the failure of these mechanisms contributes to disease.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 461 Neurobiology of Autism Disorders 3.0 Credits

Autism disorders arise from changes in neurodevelopment that deeply affect how individuals interact with the world around them. As study of autism has increased over the past several decades, it has become clear that autism actually comprises a large, heterogeneous set of similar disorders, most of which are genetic in origin. In this class, we will study how neuronal cell biology is disrupted in known forms of autism, and how distinct forms of autism can arise from alterations in common cellular pathways. Further, we will discuss how these discoveries may lead to eventual treatments or cures.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 462 Biology of Neuron Function 3.0 Credits

Covers molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neuron function. Topics include: molecular and cellular biology of neurons and neural development; molecular biology and physiology of sensory and motor neurons; molecular biology of muscle function; molecular and cellular basis of learning and memory in model organisms.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 201 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 463 Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration 3.0 Credits

This is an advanced course on the current, primary literature in the area of neurodegeneration. Students are expected to be conversant in areas of Genetics, Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurobiology. This is a discussion course based on reading current manuscripts from the primary literature. Some or all pre-requisites may be taken as either a pre-requisite or co-requisite. Please see the department for more information.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 465 Neurobiology of Disease 3.0 Credits

The objective of the course is to provide a basic understanding of molecular and cellular biology of disorders of the human nervous system. Advances developed form experimental models that have armed clinicians and basic scientists with new tools for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury will be presented.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman
Prerequisites: BIO 462 [Min Grade: D] and (BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] and BIO 218 [Min Grade: D]) or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 466 Endocrinology 4.0 Credits

Describes the classical hormones, their regulation and major clinical abnormalities. New directions in endocrinology, such as cellular regulation and cellular mediators of hormonal action are also considered. The major focus of the course will be on mammals, although some examples involving other vertebrates are included.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Prerequisites: BIO 214 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 471 Seminar in Biological Sciences 2.0 Credits

Discusses and evaluates selected current topics in bioscience and biotechnology. Includes presentations by outside speakers.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if major is BIO and classification is Senior.
Prerequisites: BIO 218 [Min Grade: D] or BIO 211 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 472 Seminar in Biological Sciences 2.0 Credits

In the second term of senior seminar, we will continue to host professional seminars with speakers presenting current research in the various biological disciplines. Professional development sessions will be available that will be helpful to the student's maturation.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if major is BIO and classification is Senior.
Prerequisites: BIO 471 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 473 [WI] Seminar in Biological Sciences 2.0 Credits

This is a writing intensive course.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if major is BIO and classification is Senior.
Prerequisites: BIO 472 [Min Grade: D]

BIO 474 Thesis in Biology 2.0 Credits

Through this course, research-active students will engage in activities intended to help them develop a written thesis, and learn how to present their research effectively in both written and oral formats. Students will be encouraged to improve their skills in reading and analyzing the literature and their own data. Students will communicate their ideas through the development of a formal thesis, an in-class oral presentation, and a poster presentation. Seminar attendance will be a part of this course. Students must complete BIO 471 and 473 before registering for this course.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Not repeatable for credit
Restrictions: Can enroll if major is BIO and classification is Senior.
Prerequisites: BIO 473 [Min Grade: D] (Can be taken Concurrently)

BIO 480 Special Studies Biological Science 12.0 Credits

Covers special topics offered in biology. Current offerings include Biotechnology, Biology of Cancer, Ethnobiology, Neurobiology, and Bioinformatics, as well as other selected topics of interest in molecular biology, genetics, and biotechnology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Can be repeated multiple times for credit

BIO 497 Research 0.5-12.0 Credits

Provides guided research in biology, molecular biology, microbiology, cell or human physiology, genetics, biochemistry, or biotechnology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Can be repeated multiple times for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman

BIO 498 Independent Study 0.5-12.0 Credits

Provides independent study in biology, molecular biology, microbiology, cell or human physiology, genetics, biochemistry, or biotechnology.

College/Department: College of Arts and Sciences
Repeat Status: Can be repeated multiple times for credit
Restrictions: Cannot enroll if classification is Freshman

Biology Faculty

Shivanthi Anandan, PhD (University of California, Los Angeles). Associate Professor. Microbial genetics, in particular the analysis of light-regulated signal transduction pathways and the regulation of gene expression in photosynthesizing organisms.
Joseph Bentz, PhD (State University of New York). Professor. Biophysics, biochemistry and biopharmaceutics, focused on the molecular basis of biological membrane transport and fusion.
Laura Duwel, PhD (University of Cincinnati) Assistant Department Head, Department of Biology. Teaching Professor.
Felice Elefant, PhD (Temple University). Assistant Professor. Understanding the roles of two classes of chromatin regulatory proteins termed histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone demethylases.
Tali Gidalevitz, PhD (University of Chicago). Assistant Professor. Genetic and molecular pathways regulating protein folding homeostasis, and their role in protein conformation diseases, aging, and development.
Gail Hearn, PhD (Rockefeller University). Professor. The conservation of primate species on Bioko Island in Equatorial Guinea, Africa.
Mesha Hunte-Brown, PhD (Drexel University). Associate Teaching Professor. Stable isotopes in aquatic food webs.
Jiu Jiang, MD, PhD (Shanghai Second Medical University). Associate Research Professor. T cell immune response to virus infection in aged mice.
Karen Kabnick, PhD (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Assistant Teaching Professor. Principles and techniques in molecular biology.
Robert P. Loudon, Ph.D. (Thomas Jefferson University). Instructor. Immunology and molecular biology.
Donna Murasko, PhD (Penn State Hershey Medical Center) Dean, College of Arts and Sciences. Professor. The effects of aging on the adaptive immune response to influenza virus and retrovirus latency and reactivation.
Jacob Russell, PhD (University of Arizona). Assistant Professor. The functional significance and evolutionary histories of symbioses between insects and bacteria.
Nianli Sang, MB, PhD ((M.B., Fudan University Shanghai Medical College; Ph.D., Thomas Jefferson University). Associate Professor. Molecular and cellular biology of cancer; posttranslational modification, folding and quality control of proteins and their implication in cell physiology and human diseases.
Aleister Saunders, PhD (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) Interim Associate Department Head. Associate Professor. Identification and characterization of genes and proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease.
Elias T. Spiliotis, PhD (The Johns Hopkins University). Assistant Professor. Cell polarity and cell division: regulation of cytoskeleton-dependent motility.
James R. Spotila, PhD (University of Arkansas) L. D. Betz Chair of Environmental Science. Professor. Physiological and biophysical ecology, thermoregulation of aquatic vertebrates, biology of sea turtles.
Elizabeth A. Spudich, PhD (Thomas Jefferson University). Instructor. Developmental biology, experimental teratology, and cell biology focusing on inflammation and immunology.
Jennifer Stanford, PhD (Harvard University). Assistant Teaching Professor. Approaches to improve undergraduate and graduate student learning in cell and molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics.
Monica M. Togna, PhD (New Jersey Institute of Technology). Assistant Teaching Professor. Examination of the structure and function of living organisms from the cellular to the organismal level in order to better understand common physiological processes.
Jeffery L. Twiss, MD, PhD (Medical University of South Carolina) Head of the Department of Biology. Professor. Cellular and molecular biology of the nervous systems, particularly the protein dynamics of sub-cellular domains.

Interdepartmental Faculty

Beth L. Leonberg, MS, MA, RD (Colorado State University, Rowan University) Director, Didactic Program in Dietetics . Instructor. Pediatric nutrition.
Donna H. Mueller, PhD (Temple University) Registered Dietitian, Nutrition and Foods. Professor Emeritus. Clinical nutrition; pediatric nutrition; nutrition in pulmonary diseases, especially cystic fibrosis; nutrition in developmental delay; dental nutrition; dietetic education and professional development.
Jennifer Nasser, PhD (Rutgers University). Associate Professor. Dopamine-mediated mechanisms of food intake regulation in humans and its impact on metabolic homeostasis, especially as it applies to obesity, eating disorders and aging.
Mikael O'Connor, MD, PhD (MD, Johns Hopkins University; PhD, Colorado State). Associate Professor. Biophysical and physiological ecology, thermoregulation of vertebrates, ecological modeling.
Sean O'Donnell, PhD (University of Wisconsin-Madison). Professor. Tropical ecology, focusing on geographic variation and elevation effects on ecology and behavior of army ants and ant-bird interactions; neurobiology, focusing on brain plasticity and brain evolution in social insects.
Jennifer Quinlan, PhD (North Carolina State University). Associate Professor. Food microbiology; microbiological quality and safety of produce, dairy and meat products in markets in high vs. low socioeconomics areas, Bacillus and Clostridium spores in food processing.
Vicki Schwartz, MS (Drexel University) Nutrition and Foods. Assistant Clinical Professor. Advanced nutrition, clinical nutrition, nutrition support.

Emeritus Faculty

Cecilie Goodrich, PhD (Harvard University). Professor Emeritus. Neuroscience and systems physiology, postnatal maturation of physiology and behavior in relation to brain immunocytochemistry.
Wayne E. Magee, PhD (University of Wisconsin). Professor Emeritus. Biochemistry and microbiology, drug delivery using phospholipid vesicles, membrane-membrane interactions, hybridoma research for monoclonal antibody production, immunotherapy, biochemical virology.
Stanley Segall, PhD (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Professor Emeritus. Flavor evaluation in foods, human organoleptic response, taste and odor, chemistry of sugars in foods, irradiation effects in foods, food science, food safety.
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